In the packaging and printing industry, bookbinding is the final process of book printing. Its construction quality and work efficiency are not only subject to the organization and cooperation, coordinated management, standardized operation and detection control of this process, but also closely related to other links in the process of book printing (such as design, plate making, printing, materials, etc.). Here, the author briefly describes the impact of other links on book binding.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
The overall design of books and periodicals is not only the basic link of printing, but also the expected goal of product appearance after production. Usually, the size, structure, content, layout and materials of books and periodicals are completed by the publishing house, editorial department, advertising company or the author himself. These design requirements directly determine the difficulty of binding. Because some designers do not understand the processing nature of each link of book printing or do not consider it well in product design, it brings trouble to plate making, printing, binding and other processes in actual production, and the quality is difficult to guarantee. Common questions are as follows.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
1. Improper layout
For example, in the design, the layout center is too large, pictures and words. The wireframe is too close to the incision, and the decorative patterns and page numbers bleed. After books and periodicals are bound into volumes, there are often different sizes of edition openings. The wireframe is skewed, the bleeding line is not aligned, and the effective content is cut. Because the binding allows certain errors in folding, collision, etc., the binding error shall be taken into account when designing the layout center size, pictures, words, wireframes, decorative patterns and page decoration.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
2. Unreasonable cross page graphic design
Some products are designed without considering the influence of different printing materials and different printing methods on cross page graphics and text. For example, a journal has designed a cross page map between the second cover and the second cover, and between the third cover and the third cover. If the cover is printed with 200g / M coated paper and the color insert is printed with 80g / m light coated paper, it is inevitable that the printing color difference will affect the drawing connection effect.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
If the cover is printed by a sheet fed offset press and the color insert is printed by a commercial rotary offset press, different printing methods will also cause obvious color difference between the two parts of the cross page picture and text. In addition, different binding methods also have different requirements for cross page graphic production. For flat binding products, 3-5mm binding opening shall be reserved, for binding products, 2-3mm milling back amount shall be reserved, and 7-10mm side glue position shall be reserved for cover and book block. Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Otherwise, the cross page image after the books and periodicals are bound into a volume, especially the cross page image in the center of the book may be incomplete, there is a lack of text, and the main contents in the graphic center are milled and fixed. Small text paragraphs are designed to span pages, which is likely to have problems affecting reading, such as incomplete middle text and serialization.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
3. The binding design of books and periodicals does not match the materials used
The quality of books and periodicals should include ensuring the integrity of contents and the scientificity of binding, the integrity of graphics and texts, exquisite printing and binding, firm binding, convenient reading and easy preservation, which are the objectives of book printing. Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
In actual production, hard case hardcover is required when the text is no more than 50 pages or the back thickness is less than 4mm, adhesive binding is required when the text is less than 30 pages, and horse riding binding is also required for more than 64 pages. These design requirements are not reasonable. When the back of the book is very narrow, if you design words on the back of the book. Patterns or color patches and ribbons obviously different from the cover and back cover, it is difficult to meet the requirements for the cover. The paper used for the text is too poor or too thick, and the folding is bound. Sewing and other processing will be difficult.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
4。 Unreasonable format design
Special shaped folio is easy to cause waste of paper and other materials, and often leads to complex matching and folding difficulties. The factory has processed a 42 Kai (105mm x 175mm) manual binding product. In order to save materials, it is printed on positive paper, and the layout is made up in the form of 8 pages + 4 pages + 9 pages. Some page numbers should be rolled and folded, and there are too many scattered pages in the matched book, which is bound to reduce the binding efficiency and increase the scrap rate.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Book printing enterprises will first formulate construction plans according to the specific requirements of products and customers after receiving printing live parts. On the basis of ensuring the product quality, shortening the production cycle as far as possible, weighing the cost and improving the economic benefits of the enterprise as far as possible, a reasonable process route is formulated according to the actual situation of the enterprise’s production process, technology and equipment, taking into account all aspects of plate making, printing and binding. Whether the production process design is correct and reasonable directly affects the production efficiency and quality of the whole production process, especially the binding process.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
1. Strengthen the review of customer objectives, requirements and self-made originals and raw materials
The production management department shall act as the consultant of customers, promote the rational implementation of product design level, and take measures to make up for the deficiencies of design. We should understand the use requirements and quality objectives of products, fully understand and carefully check the quality and raw materials of originals, originals and samples provided by customers, make correct judgment on whether they can meet the quality objectives and use requirements of customers, and solve problems in time.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Bookbinding is the last stage and has certain technical characteristics. Therefore, the production process design must first ensure the quality of finished bookbinding products and facilitate bookbinding operation. Such as the review of the design thickness of the back of the cover. Accurate back thickness calculation is very important for the appearance performance of bound books. The back width can be estimated according to the paper thickness x pages. The calculation will be more accurate after measuring the actual paper thickness. Conditional book printing enterprises can use homogeneous paper to simulate the actual production situation and make fake sample books to measure the back size more accurately.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
2. Comprehensively consider the product characteristics and the equipment of the enterprise
The production management department shall, according to the product characteristics, format, printing volume and binding method; The binding rules determine the construction model, single and double printing and binding and other specific process routes. For products with large printing volume, rotary machine printing and double binding can be considered; Double or even multiple printing should be considered for small format products. Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
External version should pay attention to the size of the finished product. Process elements such as milling, plate splitting method and rules shall be reviewed. The process design shall also fully consider the performance of the printing and packaging equipment of the enterprise, the production habits of the operators, and the difficulty of binding operation, so as to reduce the manual folding, matching, drawing, cutting, pasting and other operations as far as possible, so as to improve the binding efficiency.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
3. Take into account the requirements of printing paper thickness and folding times
The folding times of the product shall meet the corresponding standards (see C Ya / T 28-1999): the single sheet of paper below 59G / M can be folded at most four times, 60-80g / M can be folded at most three times, and above 81g / M can be folded at most two times. In actual production, due to the temporary change of paper use or in order to improve the efficiency of folding, matching and sewing, it may exceed the specified limits, but it should also be understood that the more times the paper with a certain thickness is folded, the more serious the eight character pleats in the post will be, and the greater the creeping deviation between the page numbers will be.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
4. Arrange loose pages reasonably according to the binding process
Different binding methods and models have different requirements for the position of scattered pages. When the scattered pages of sewing products are pasted separately, the pastes are easy to be broken and lose pages, so 2 pages should be allowed in the process design. The 4-page scattered Posts ride on the adjacent whole page, and the single page should be pasted after the first post, so as to separate the book after locking and binding. Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Too many posts. When the paper is too thin, it is often used. When the paper is too thick and the number of pages per post is too many, the sewing machine will not tie through, the back of the book will crack during rounding, and obvious steps will appear at the front of the finished product. At this time, component post binding should be designed.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
The placement of scattered pages of binding products is related to the structural performance of binding machine. For example, the products with small printing volume, too thin or too thick back, tongue on the cover and special size are bound with a disc binding machine, which is more flexible and fast. The collision of book stickers mainly depends on manual and machine vibration.
The external placement of scattered pages is conducive to the collision of scattered pages in place before milling back. Bulk products adopt binding linkage equipment with a high degree of automation. A single page or 2 pages are generally pasted after the whole post to facilitate automatic matching, and 4 pages are generally placed between the whole posts to ensure that the outer post of the book block is straight when the book block is sealed, and the upper cover will not be folded at the binding opening.
For horse riding order products, the scattered pages should be placed outside as far as possible in the form of 2 Riding 4 riding 8. If there are full page color inserts in front of the horse riding bookbinding, and the text is not full page enough, there are scattered pages sandwiched in the middle. At this time, there will be positioning lag and not in place when Binding scattered pages.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
5. Selection and matching of printing models
The printing sheets printed by different types of printing machines may have different post sizes. Pay attention to the selection and matching of models when printing multiple models at the same time. For example, if the rotary machine with different drum circumference is printed with web paper of the same specification, the format will be different; The size of the folding products printed by the rotary press and the folding products printed by the sheet fed press will also be different. If the length of the outer post is larger than that of the inner post, it is difficult for the shift fork used for positioning to push the inner post in place during horse riding binding linkage binding, so stealing posts will occur. Shrinkage phenomenon.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Many details of the implementation of the production process are completed in the process of prepress plate making and plate making, such as the unification of rules for different live parts, the reservation of milling and setting, the specification of process identification and page spread. Treatment of hemorrhage. Mount a horse to order the page number inside the product. Page number and brow of the book. The unification of edition center, etc. As the key process of implementing the production process, plate making and plate making will affect the binding processing quality whether they are considered comprehensively and whether the construction is detailed.
1. Table paper accuracy and binding folding
Table paper is a template for manual composition, and its drawing accuracy directly affects the page number after folding. Alignment of layout center, brow line and other elements and splicing accuracy of spread chart. Make up table paper shall be drawn correctly, the size shall be accurate, and the diagonal error shall be ≤ 1mm. The stage plate shall be drawn on relatively thick paper and stored against moisture. The size shall be rechecked before use. In principle, it shall be drawn with use and shall not be used for a long time.
2. Cross page text. Image and text processing
When making up cross page pictures and texts, pay attention to the up-down alignment, and leave allowance for setting, milling and slurry back to avoid pressing the pictures and texts. Reserved milling opening for plate making. The binding opening shall be the same as the actual binding milling back size. The size of the opening shall be consistent to ensure the accuracy of the cross page graphic connection. The milling depth of binding products shall be designed at 2.0-3.5mm. Considering the limitation of paper format in actual production, the milling depth can be slightly smaller under the condition of ensuring that the letter of guarantee is fully milled. Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Subject to the fact that the innermost page of the book can stick firmly, the milling opening of the book with three folded hands is generally set to 1.5-2mm, and that of the book with four folded hands is set to 2.o-2.5mm. For products with particularly thick book block, the milling opening should be appropriately increased during plate making. The important part of the graphic content of books and periodicals shall not be too close to the incision, and shall be kept at least more than 3mm. The bleeding picture and text shall be additionally cut to facilitate cutting.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
3. Set the heart of the text on horseback. Page crawling
The paper thickness and folding times should be considered when making a large version. The influence of the overlapping relationship between posts on the page number. For horse riding products, the page center and page number of internal posts should be moved accordingly. For example, when a product with 16 sheets and 3 sheets is printed on 70g / m paper and processed in the unit of the whole post, the second edition version center is generally used. Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
The page number shall be moved outward by 1mm in the direction of binding, and the third edition shall be moved outward by 2mm as a whole. For 8-page set of 8-page sewing products and similar wd-b book and periodical rotary offset press, each post is a large set of 2 printing sheets. Proper crawling treatment shall also be considered for the inner 8 pages to ensure the alignment of internal and external page numbers and page center.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
4. Setting principle of process identification
The process identification shall be standardized and complete, based on the principle of convenient printing and installation, and shall be concise and clear. When the cover, text and color insert are made separately, the sky and ground rules adopted shall be unified, and the folding marks shall be consistent. The upper and lower identification of duplex products shall be different. The series products with the same form should be distinguished with obvious and easy to distinguish characters in the back of the book, so as to avoid confusion in binding and matching.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
Printing not only affects the visual effect of pictures and texts, but also brings difficulties to the processes such as cutting and folding when binding due to abnormal printing, unstable rules and uneven paper receiving. The post process shall be taken into account during printing construction to reduce the impact on binding.
(1) The opening of paper is not skew, not skew and regular. Accurate. Paper cutting is often ignored. Improper cutting not only affects the multi-color nesting of printing, but also affects the quality of binding, cutting and folding.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
(2) The lithographic printing plates shall be parallel and the rules shall be consistent. When the printing rules are changed, they shall be clearly marked and placed separately. The printing jaws and edges shall correspond to the stop gauge of the folding machine.Influence Of Each Step In Book Printing On Bookbinding
(3) The printing shall emphasize the balance of water and ink, make the water small and ink hard, and keep the paper receiving neat. The paper surface shall be flat without deformation and expansion, so as to prevent Ruffle edge.